Ah, the difference 50 or 60 years can make. Less than a century ago, wetland areas of all sizes were looked at something to be drained, filled in, or otherwise disposed of. Now after decades of re-education (and a lot of hard-learned lessons), we know that we were wrong about wetlands. They prevent flooding and are one of the world's most extensive habitats of plants and animals. By acting as a filter, they can also stop and reduce the effects of pollution. And this applies to backyards as well the Everglades.
Do You Have A Stagnating Situation On Your Property?
Is it a bare "wet spot" that never dries up? A long ago abandoned swimming pool project? A "retention pond" caused by runoff? It's not difficult to create situations that form permanent or semi-permanent standing water bodies on a property. But a water body without accompanying vegetation is a water hazard in more ways than one. It can act as a breeding ground for disease-spreading mosquitoes. It can attract non-native and undesirable plants and animals. And this water can move from nonvegetated bodies into other parts of a yard and even into a house itself.
Plants To The Rescue
Instead of more drainage or construction to your property, try introducing native wetland plants to that problem wet area. Doing so prevents erosion and flooding, increases water oxygen, and filters toxins from standing water. And planting these plants acts as a welcome mat to beneficial bugs, amphibians, and birds, reducing the presence of harmful insects.
What Should Be Planted?
As region and circumstances will affect planting choices, these selections should be made with input from county extension agents or local nurseries. But right general decisions include:
1. Wetland Grasses
Plant a grass buffer zone that extends all the way to the lip of the pond or wet area. Gamma grass and sand cordgrass are just two examples that are attractive and prevent erosion. Once your "pioneers" have become established, other backyard wetland plants that do well are:
2. Water's Edge
Native plants that grow at the pond's very edge or in shallow water include the iris, the cattail, and the gorgeous cardinal (which hummingbirds just love) flower. These plants draw and feed on pollutants from very wet soil.
Natives like basswood and the stunning water lily provide essential cover for animals and clean and purify water by absorbing toxins.
Clusters of underwater plants provide everything from food to cover to "nurseries." They also filter out toxins, help to aerate the water and prevent the overgrowth of algae. Good native choices include water starwort and curled pondweed.